The more we learn about our immune system the better we can develop ways to intervene for therapeutic purposes. Vaccines have the potential to elicit life-long immunity against pathogenic microbes, and may also be designed and tailored to break immune tolerance for the purposes of destroying cancers. Therapeutic regimens can be developed to counter autoimmune defects and immune rejection during organ transplantation. Cell- and gene-based therapies can be implemented to specifically target microbial infections, cancers, or to correct dangerous autoimmune conditions. Immune deficiencies arising from aging, primary or secondary immunodeficiencies, can all be impacted to achieve improved immunity. Research in this exciting field is geared towards the translational aspects of immunobiology.